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Mobile Technologies - Cellular Phones - A cellphone is a mobile electronic telecommunications device that use radio waves to allow people the communicate dialing and receiving phone calls trought a wireless cellular network.

The cellular network interconnected to the public phone system and is based on several telecom cells, called base station (cell sites) where the phones can connect. The cell bases have a tower with antennas with a zone of coverage (usually from 0.8 to 13 kilometres), and the movil phones connect to the nearest base to make and receive calls.

0G is the name used for the technologies of mobile telephone services that started in 1946
1G is the name of the first generation of cell phones introduced in the mid 1980's and use analog signals
2G Generation: In this mobile telephone systems the radio signals are digital. Note that both 1G and 2G, use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system. 2G services are frequently referred as Personal Communications Service or PCS in the US.
2.5G services, which enable high-speed data transfer over upgraded existing 2G networks, are widely deployed worldwide.

2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. The main 2G standards are:

GSM (TDMA-based), originally from Europe but used worldwide
iDEN (TDMA-based), proprietary network used by Nextel in the United States and Telus Mobility in Canada
IS-136 aka D-AMPS, (TDMA-based, commonly referred as simply TDMA in the US), used in the Americas
IS-95 aka cdmaOne, (CDMA-based, commonly referred as simply CDMA in the US), used in the Americas and parts of Asia
PDC (TDMA-based), used exclusively in Japan
The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. The GSM standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world.
GSM service is used by over 2 billion people across more than 210 countries and territories
3G is the next generation designed to allow the transmission of very large quantities of data, is also becoming increasingly popular. The services associated with 3G provide the ability to transfer both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchanging email, and instant messaging). In marketing 3G services, video telephony has often been used as the flag-ship killer application for 3G.
  • The first country which introduced 3G on a large commercial scale was Japan. In 2005 about 40% of subscribers use 3G networks only, and 2G is on the way out in Japan. It is expected that during 2006 the transition from 2G to 3G will be largely completed in Japan, and upgrades to the next 3.5G stage with 3 Mbit/s data rates is underway.
  • Info and Whitepapers on Telecom/3G/CDMA 4G 5G
    3G in Africa
    Intro To 3G
    Three - 3g website UK
    - 3G Mobile Community
    - 3G Healthcare Service -
  • 4G future generation development has already started although its scope is not clear yet. Higher data speeds enable new services for subscribers, such as picture messaging and video telephony.
  • The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of digital data that includes digitized audio (except for the first generation analog networks). The technology that achieves this depends on the system which the mobile phone operator has adopted. Some technologies include AMPS for analog, and TDMA, CDMA, GSM, GPRS, EV-DO, and UMTS for digital communications. Each network operator has a unique radio frequency band.

    Cell phones culture was extended worldwide in the past twenty years, thanks to the miniaturization and additional services as SMS text messages, or MMS graphic messages that allows to send photos and videos.

  • The sale of commercial ringtones exceeded $2.5 billion in 2004
  • The world's largest mobile phone manufacturers include Alcatel, Audiovox, BenQ-Siemens, Dopod, Fujitsu, Kyocera, LG, Motorola, NEC, Nokia, Panasonic (Matsushita Electric), Pantech Curitel, Philips, Sagem, Samsung, Sanyo, Sharp, SK Teletech, Sony Ericsson and Toshiba.
  • The world's largest mobile phone operators include Orange SA and Vodafone.
  • According to the CIA World Factbook the UK now has more mobile phones than people
    Mobile phone use on aircraft is also prohibited, because of concerns of possible interference with aircraft radio communications
    Cell phones controversies
    Health Risks There are concerns about the effects on health from using a mobile telephone. There is some small amount of scientific evidence for an increase in certain types of rare tumors (cancer) in long-time, heavy users. More recently a pan-European study provided significant evidence of genetic damage under certain conditions. Some researchers also report the mobile phone industry has interfered with further research on health risks. The World Health Organization Task Force on EMF effects on health has no definitive conclusion on the veracity of these allegations. (See also electromagnetic radiation hazard.) It is generally thought, however, that RF is incapable of producing any more than heating effects, as it is considered non-ionizing radiation; in other words, it lacks the energy to disrupt molecular bonds such as occurs in genetic mutations.
    Driving concerns Several studies have concluding that driving and talking trought a cell phone is very risky because increase the correlation with traffic accidents even when using hands free systems. Some research indicates that using mobile phones while driving poses the same risk as someone operating a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol.
    Potential danger during electrical storms There is evidence that mobile phone users suffer much more serious lesions than non-users, in case of being struck by lightning during an electrical storm.
    Security concerns Since early networks, the clonning of cell phones to listen private converstations was reported. Even the more recent systems as GSM have much more security, there still concerns about vulnerabilities that allow SMS spoofing. Also the cell phones was used in conjunction with bombs in the terrorist atacks in Madrid 2004 and London 2005.
    Mobile Phones - Directory and services - Free SMS
    SMS Text Messages - SMS Text Messages Information Offers Instant Messenger services to increase the simplicity and ease of texting on phones or via standard e-mail.
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